At its beginning thousands of New Englanders flooded in to what was then Nova Scotia, to change irrevocably the character of the former Acadian province; additional tides of Yorkshiremen, Scots, Irish and Pennsylvania Germans followed. Although many of New Brunswick's present-day citizens can trace descent from the Pre-Loyalists, the majority have nothing concrete to show for it.
All would experience tension with the Indians and be subjected to American privateering raids and land invasions resulting from the mounting political unrest to the south before the revolution of 1776. At that time, Nova Scotia would have included the later province of New Brunswick, and the Saint John River was referred to as the St. Most currently extant pre-Loyalist artifacts belong to two principal groups of incomers, the New England and Yorkshire settlers, and of these only a few families seem to have cherished and preserved ancestral possessions.
John River [also referred to as the Saint John or the St.
John's River in documents of the time], where the major settlements were at Maugerville and at the mouth of the river.4 These new settlers (or Planters, as contemporaries called them) brought some goods and money, but they were not wealthy.
This article presents the results to date, focusing on the problems of dating and authentication.