Miguel Lopez de Legazpi landed in the Philippines in 1564 and consolidated Spanish power, designating Manila as the capital in 1572.
Roman Catholic religious orders began Christianizing the populace, but the Sulu Islands and Mindanao remained Muslim.
Spanish numbers and some Spanish words are included in the dialects.
The dependence on English causes concern, but since Filipino does not have words for scientific or technological terms, English is likely to remain in common use. National symbols have been emphasized since independence to create a sense of nationhood.
The Muslim influence had spread as far north as Luzon when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in 1521 to claim the archipelago for Spain.